THE BLACK GREEKS
To deny the African origin of Grecian civilization the Eurocentrists attack Martin Bernal's book: Black Athena. This book has nothing to do with Afrocentrism. In the two volumes published thus far, Bernal maintains that Semites from Phoenicia and the Semitic Hyksos speaking rulers of Egypt, took civilization to Greece, not Black Africans.
J.A. Rogers in Sex and Race, Parker, Diop and DuBois on the other hand, are Afrocentric scholars. These scholars have reviewed the writings of the classical authors, the anthropological, linguistic and historical evidence to reach the conclusion that the ancient Greeks were blacks and that the European Greeks learned the liberal arts and sciences from their "black ancestors" who first settled Greece and the Egyptians.
Memnon (2nd century, C.E.) & Memnon from the Trojan War
(Memnon was one of several protégés of the wealthy Athenian businessman and philosopher Herodes Atticus. His name was probably inspired by Memnon, the Ethiopian ally of Troy as described in Homer’s Iliad. Although few details of his life are known, his origins as a black African are established by a surviving portrait head. This, as well as his connections with Greek philosophy, attest to the high intellectual status sometimes achieved by Africans in the ancient Mediterranean world.)
According to the Olympian Creation Myth the earliest groups to appear on earth were the Libyco-Thracians .The Libyans were Proto-Saharans, as were the original Thracians. Some Thracians were descendants of the Kushite and Egyptian troops established at Trace, by Sesostris (Thutmose III or Ramses II), when he conquered Asia and Europe.(Diop 1991; Winters 1983a,1984b,1985a)
Many of the so-called Greek myths are in reality historical texts which show the ancient lifestyle of the pre-Aryans in Greece and the transition from Pelasgian matriarchy to Greek-Aryan patriarchy. The term Amazon was often used by the Aryans to denote matriarchal societies living on the Black Sea. The battle between Thesus and the Amazons, led by Queen Melanippe, records the conflicts between the ancient Aryan-Greeks and the Libyans settled around the Black Sea.
Dr. Lefkowitz (1992) and Snowden (1992,1976) perpetuate the myth that the only blacks in ancient Europe were slaves or mercenaries. This is false the Greek historical works make it clear that many ancient settlers of the Aegean came from Africa , especially the Garamantes and Pelasgians. G. W. Parker wrote that: "I need not go into details concerning the ethnical relations of the Romans, since they, too are Mediterranean and are closely related to the same African confederation of races ...[situated in Greece]. Aeneas, their mythical founder of Troy. The Aenead, like the Illiad, and Odyssey and all other of the world's great epics, is the poetic story dealing with African people". The heroes of these tales used long shields, the characteristic shields of the Indo-European speaking Greeks were round.
The Eurocentrists attempt to prove there was "considerable cultural and linguistic continuity from the twelfth century to the eight century BC" ,in the Aegean . Yet there is no way it can be proven that Indo-European Greeks have always been in Greece. This view on the continuity between the Linear B Greeks and later Greeks held by Lefkowitz is disputed by Hopper who noted that " after all, so much which characterizes Minoan Crete seems wholly alien to later Greece, despite the efforts of scholars to detect 'continuity' " .
Given the wealth of Afrocentric literature it would seem logical that the Eurocentric "resisters" review these works, and point out the weaknesses within these text to prove that Afrocen- trism is a "myth" (Lefkowitz 1992). But, instead of doing just this, the "resisters" simply mention text written by Afrocentric scholars and then attack Black Athena, as if Afrocentrism is based solely on this text.
Dr. Molefi Kete Asante has observed that: " The aim is to open [Afrocentric] fields of inquiry and to expand human dialogue around questions of social, economic, historical and cultural concern. Everything must be run through the sieve of doubt until one hits the bedrock of truth. Our methods, based on the idea of African centeredness, are meant to establish a clear pattern of discourse that may be followed by others". Based on this definition Black Athena, is not an Afrocentric work. This book is meant to imply that the Hyksos or Semitic speaking west Asians developed civilization in Greece not the blacks. This book because of its lack of African centeredness fails the test of an Afrocentric work..
Black Athena, is not the Afrocentric Bible on Black Egypt. We doubt that Cheikh Anta Diop would even agree with most of the thesis of this book. Trigger observed that:
"Although he [Bernal] has acquired an enthusiastic following among
exponents of negritude and occasionally describes some of the Egyptian
Pharaohs as "black" or "Nubian", he aligns himself not with Anta Diop but with more moderate "Negro intellectuals"...who...do see Egypt as essentially African" .
Bernal (1987,1991) believes that the Greeks resulted from a mixture of European and (Semitic speaking) Mediterranean people.
In volume 2 of Black Athena , Bernal outlines his thesis that the "Egyptians" founded Greek civilization. But these "Egyptians" are not blacks, they are Semitic speakers. Bernal (1991) makes it clear that he believes that the civilization of the Aegean was founded by Semitic speaking Phoenicians, and the Semitic speaking Hyksos Dynasty of Egypt.
Bernal (1991) sees Hyksos invaders as Hurrian, Semitic, Indo-Iranian speakers. As a result he believes that the Danaos and Kadmeans or Egyptian founders of Thebes in Greece, were the Hyksos. (Bernal 1991, p.495) In general, Bernal (1991) believes that when the Hyksos were driven from Egypt, they settled in the Aegean and developed civilization.
Bernal's view of the Hyksos as the founders of Grecian civilization has nothing to do with the work of Afrocentric scholars. The problem with Bernal (1991) is that he believes that the "Pre-Hellenes" or Pelasgian people were Indo-European speakers. This view is not held by Afrocentric scholars who recognize that the founders of Athens and Attica were blacks. Diop (1974,1991) and Clyde Ahmad Winters (1983b) make it clear that Blacks came to Greece in prehistoric times and remarried in Greece in significant numbers until classical times. Therefore the apparent errors in Bernal's Black Athena, should not be seen as proving that Afrocentric scholars are wrong. These errors only prove that Bernal (1991) has failed to prove that the Hyksos founded civilization in the Aegean.
Afrocentric scholars are accused of using old and outdated sources. This is true of some Afrocentric scholars who have written books based on secondary sources. Yet, those Afrocentric scholars such as DuBois, Diop (1974,1991), J.A. Rogers, Parker (1917,1918), Winters (1983b,1985b,1989a,1989b) use up-to-date sources to prove historical facts about the African past, even before Diop used primary sources to illuminate the African past. These Afrocentric ,scholars of African and African-American origin because of their unique character as a black people unaware of their specific original African home have not been blinded by ethnocentrism to look for the history of blacks in one part of Africa and the world. These scholars have sought to illuminate the African past throughout the world.
For example, Parker (1917,1918) used anthropological, archaeological, historical and classical sources to prove that blacks once lived in the Aegean. Parker (1917,1918) used the Greek classics to prove that the Pelasgians were of African origin. He also discussed the origin stories about the Pelasgic founders of selected Grecian cities and proved that these men were blacks and not Indo-Europeans. Parker (1917, pp.341-42) also observed that "the great Grecian epics are epics of an African people and Helen, the cause of the Trojan war, must henceforth be conceived as a beautiful brown skin girl" . These Africans sailed to the Greece from North Africa.
Early boat used by the ancient Pelasgians in Greece
Using archaeological evidence and the classical literature C.A. Winters (1983b) explained how the African/Black founders of Grecian civilization originally came from the ancient Sahara. Winters(1983b) makes it clear that these Blacks came to the Aegean in two waves 1) the Garamantes a Malinke speaking people that now live along the Niger river, but formerly lived in the Fezzan region of Libya; and 2) the Egyptians, Phoenicians and East Africans who were recorded in Greece's history as the Pelasgians. The Pelasgian civilization has been discussed in detail by Parker (1917,1918).
The Pelasgians founded many cities. The Pelasgian founding of Athens is noted by Plutarch in Theseus 12, and Ovid in Metamorphosis vii, 402 ff. According to Herodotus vii.91, the Pelasgians also founded Thebes. Many of these Athenians may have introduced the Geometric style to Greece during the so-called Dark Ages (1200- 600 BC).
This is fine Geometric Style piece dating to the "Dark Age" period of Greece note
the broad shoulders depicted on this piece of art.
Winters (1983b) makes it clear that the Garamantes founded the Greek cities of Thrace, Minoan Crete and Attica. The Garamantes were also called Carians by the Indo-European Greeks.
The Garamantes or Carians originally lived in the Fezzan. These Garamante were described by the Latin classical writers as black or dark skinned: perusti (Lucan 4.679), furvi (Arnoloius, Adversus Nationes , 6.5) and nigri (Anthologia Latina, 155,no.183).
As a result of the research of Parker (1917,1918) and Winters (1983b), when Lefkowitz (1992) argues that Socrates could not have been black because he was an Athenian citizen. Because it is her opinion that the Athenians were not of African origin eventhough Greek traditions make it clear that Pelasgians which were not Indo-European speakers founded this city. As a result, she fails to prove Socrates' racial heritage because the Greeks made it clear that the founders of Athens were Pelasgians or Blacks. Moreover, the earliest art from Athens known as the Geometric style depict African or Black people.
On this Athenean funeral vase (c. 750 BC) the dead and
Those who weep for him in this Geometric Style pottery have Negroid features
Lefkowitz noted that "Thus , if Socrates and his parents had dark skin and other African racial features, some of his contemporaries would have been likely to mention it...Unless, of course, all the rest of the Athenians also had African origins; but then why are they not depicted as Africans in the art? " This question is easily answered. There are numerous Africans depicted in Greek art, but rather than admit that some of these blacks were descendants of the Pelasgian and Garamante groups they are all referred too as Ethiopian slaves or mercenaries (Snowden 1976).
The work of Diop (1974,1991), Parker (1917,1918) and Winters (1983b) make it clear that the Afrocentric discussion of the African influence in the Aegean is not based solely on the work of Bernal (1987,1991) as the "resisters" would have us believe. Use of Bernal (1991) as a method to dispute the findings of the Afrocentrists is groundless because his work fails to acknowledge the African origin of the Pelasgians.
BLACKS IN THE AEGEAN
The earliest inhabitants of Greece and the Aegean Islands were Blacks from ancient Libya, Palestine, and Asia Minor. These Blacks founded Athens, Thebes Thera and Attica. They occupied much of the mainland and all the Aegean Islands. These Blacks are frequently depicted in the art associated with the so-called Dark Ages (1200-600 BC). There are also fine frescos from Thera (Sanorin) Island which illustrate one of the Agean cities occupied by these Blacks during the 16th and 15th centuries BC.
This is one of the Thera Frescos. Note the busy atmosphere
Associated with the Pelasgian cities during the 16th Century BC
Although these people of the Heroic age came from diverse origins, the Aryan-Greeks called them Pelasgians. According to the Greeks, the first man was Pelasgus--ancestor of the Pelasgians. The Pelasgians were a combination of different Black tribes called Achaeans, Cadmeans, Leleges, Carians or Garamantes.
The term Pelasgian was applied to all these pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece. R.J. Hopper, in The Early Greeks, noted that "indeed the classical Greeks believed in the separate existence of diverse ethnic elements side by side, and thought particularly of the Pelasgians in this connection".
According to tradition, the Pelasgians inhabited Arcadia and many Aegean Islands. These Blacks took their own writing to Greece which was later used by the Aryan-Greeks. According to Herodotus quadrigas or four-horse chariots were introduced to Greeks by the Libyans .
The Aryan-Greeks adopted the language of the Pelasgians and Egyptians. The linguistic evidence shows that there was a differentiation of Greece into East Greek and West Greek. The Black Greeks spoke East Greek (Achaioi or Achaean). West Greek was spoken by theDorian or Aryan Greeks. The earliest Aryan tribe called Ionians spoke a dialect of East Greek called Aeolic.
Many classical scholars teach the world that the Greek language is entirely Indo-European. This view of Greek is wrong.
Dr. Anna Morpurgo Davies, has made it clear that "less than 40% of the words which have an Indo-European etymology". According to Dr. Davies, 52.2 % of the Greek terms in Chantraine's Dictionnaire Etymologique de la langue Grecque (1968) have an unknown etymology. The mixed nature of the Greek language results from the early settlement of the Aegean by Blacks from Africa.
Some of these words are of African origin. Robert K.G. Temple, in The Sirius Mystery, shows that many of the most common words of the Greek vocabulary are of Egyptian origin. Diop (1991) has also discussed the Egyptian origin for many Greek terms.
Some of the first African colonists to arrive in Greece came from Crete. These Cretans were called Garamantes. After the goddess Ker orCar, these people also came to be also known as the Carians. The Carians spoke a Mande languages.
A Pelasgian boat from Thera
These people usually sailed to the Islands in Aegean and the surrounding coast were they established prosperous trading communities.
There is frequent mention of the Garamantes of the Fezzan, in Classical literature of Greece and Rome. The Garamantes were recognized as a Black tribe. They were known to the Greeks and Romans as dark skinned. In Ptolemy (I.8.5.,p.31) a Garamante slave was described as having a body the color of pitch or wholly black.
Graves (1980) and Leo Frobenius linked the Garamante to the ancient empire of Ghana (c.300 BC to A.D. 1100). Graves (1980) claims that the term Garamante is the Greek plural for Garama or Garamas. He said that the present Jarama or Jarma are the descendants of the Garamante; and that the Jarama live near the Niger river.
The Olympian creation myth, as recorded by Pindar in Fragment , and Apollonius Rhodius, makes it clear that the Garamantes early colonized Greece. Their descendants were called Carians. The Carians practiced apiculture. As in Africa the Carians practiced matrilineal descent. According to Herodotus , even up until his time the Carians took the name of their mother.
Many of the Greek myths are historical text which discuss the transition of Greece from an matriarchal society to a patriarchal Aryan society. The term Amazon was often used by the Aryans to denote matriarchal societies living on the Black Sea. The battle between Thesus and the Amazons, led by Queen Melanippe, records the conflicts between the ancient Aryan-Greeks and the Libyco-Nubians settled around the Black Sea.
The classical Carians and Egyptians were very close. Having originated in the Fertile African Crescent they had similar gods and cultural traditions dating back to the Proto-Saharan period.
The Garamantes founded Attica, where they worked the mines at Laureium. Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fruitfulness, came from the Fezzan (Libya) by way of Crete. It was Demeter who took poppy seeds and figs to Europe.
Apollonius Rhodius (.iv.1310) tells us that the goddess Athene was born beside Lake Triton in Libya. The goddess Athene, was called Neith by the Egyptians and Nia by the Cretans in Linear A writing. This shows that the Garamantes took this god to Europe in addition to Demeter and Amon (=Ammon ,Amma).
By 3000 BC, the Garamantes has spread their influence to Thrace and early Hellenic Greece. Hesiod, who was a Kadmean (i.e., of Egyptian descent), in Works and Days , said that before the Hellenic invasion the Grecian people lived in peace and tranquility and had matriarchal societies. The name Europe comes from Aerope, the daughter of King Catreus, a Cretan. Thucydides observed that:
"The first person known to us by tradition as having
established a navy is Minos. He made himself master
of what is now called the Hellenic sea, and ruled over
the Cyclades into most of which he sent the first colo-
nies, expelling the Carians and appointing his own sons
as governors; and thus did his best to put down piracy
in these waters, a necessary step to secure the revenues
for his own use".
Thus we find that many Cretans also settled much of mainland southern Europe.
The Greeks often called the first inhabitants of Greece Pelasgians. The Greek writers claimed that Pelasgus, the great ancestor of the Pelasgians was the first man. The Pelasgians were a combination of diverse Black tribes which included the Achaeans , Kadmeans, and Leleges. The Garamantes were also often called Pelasgians by some classical writers. Strabo said "that the Pelasgi, as indeed the most ancient nation, were diffused through all Greece, and especially among the Aeolians".
The city of Argo was founded by Phoroneus, the father of Pelasgus, Iasus and Agenor. It was these folks who divided the Peloponnese between them.
Herodotus referred to the Pelasgians as "venerable ancestors". He said that the first Athenians "they were Pelasgi, the later possessing the country now designed Hellas". The Pelasgian founding of Athens is also noted by Plutarch in Theseus 12, and Ovid in Metamorphosis vii.402ff. According to Herodotus vii.91, the Pelasgians also founded Thebes in Europe. Pausanias, noted that "The Arcadians make mention of Pelasgus as the first person who existed in their country. From this king the whole region took the name Pilasgia". Hopper noted that the Pelasgians founded Attica.
The Black immigrants from Canaan were also settled in the Aegean at Argolis. They called themselves the "Sons of Abas". Many of the Melampodes later took part of Argolis away from the Canaanites.
The earliest Greek alphabet was made by the Pelasgians, it was lost and later reintroduced by Kadmus to Boeotia. Another Pelasgian, Evander of Arcadia introduced writing to the Italians. This script was used to make the first fifteen characters of the Latin script according to Pliny and Plutarch.
Pelasgians from Thera
Pliny says that one of the Aegean scripts was created by an Egyptian named Menos. An Egyptian creation of one of the early Greek alphabets is not out of the question because the early Predynastic Egyptians used the Proto-Saharan script as did the founders of the 12th Dynasty. Moreover, the Tiles of Rameses II, published by F. Hitching, in The Mysterious World, are analogous to the early Greek characters.
The Egyptians established many colonies in ancient Europe. The Egyptians called themselves Melampodes or "Blackfeet". The Egyptians were also called Danaans in Greek history. According to Hyainus in Fabula, and Apollonius Rhodius when the Danaans came to Greece they were a combination of diverse African tribes.
When the Danaans came to Greece they took away part of Argolis from the Canaanites. The Danaans took the Mysteries of Themoporia and the oracle of Dodona to Greece. This view is supported by the discovery of an inscribed stone in the Peloponnese that had Egyptian writing on it dating to the Vth Dynasty of Egypt. Greek traditions speak of Egyptian colonies founded by Cecrops who settled Atica, Danaus the brother of Aegyptus was the founder of Argolis. Danaus is alleged to have taught the Greeks agriculture and metallurgy.
The ancient Myceneans were Blacks. These ancient people came from Crete, and the Western Sahara. Alain Anselin has shown how many of these Myceneans spoke Dravidian languages especially the Termils of Asia Minor.
The cities of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Thebes and Orochomenos were founded by the Eteocretans or "Real Minoans", as opposed to the later Greco-Cretans. These Eteocretans spoke a Manding language.
Ring made of gold depicting a Stag hunt (c. 1500BC)
(Note the Afro hairstyle worn by the Mycenaeans)
Mycenean art gives ample evidence of the rich and varied culture shared by the Africans of Mycenae. Africans are depicted in hunting and war motifs on artifacts recovered from the Shaft Graves at Mycenae.
The best known African artifacts from Mycenae include the "Stag Hunt", "Lion and Spearman Hunt" and the "Siege Scene" depicted on the Silver Rhyton Cup. All of these artifacts date to 1500 BC
By 1200 BC, much of the Mycenae civilization was under the control the Achaeans. The Achaeans later founded other city-states in Greece. After conquering the Mycenaeans, the Achaeans formed the Greek states of Peloponnesus. Their major cities: Mycenae and Tiryns in Argolis, and Pylos Messenia were originally founded by other Pelasgian groups.
Here is a Geometric Style (or Achaean) scene of an
Overturned boat (c. 850 BC) for Athens
Between 1200-800 BC, the Achaeans began to take control of the Greek mainland , the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula, Crete and numerous islands in the Aegean Sea. The Achaeans conquered the Nubian, Egyptian and Phoenician armies at Troy. Some of the troops fighting with the Achaeans were Indo-European speaking people.
ORIGIN OF THE INDO-EUROPEANS
There is disagreement over where the Europeans originated and when they spread across Europe. Dr. M. Gimbutas maintains that Europeans had their origin in the Pontic steppe country on the north coast of the Black Sea and began to expand into Europe as Kurgan nomads after 4000 BC In 1987, Dr. C. Renfrew hypothesized that the Indo-Europeans lived in eastern Anatolia and spread into Europe around 7000 years ago with the spread of agriculture. Both of these views have little support based upon the ancestral culture terms used by the Proto-Indo-European which are predominately of non Indo-European (I-E) origin. After a comparison of the linguistic, agricultural and genetic evidence researchers have found little support for both of these theories. Sokal et al, noted that: "If the IEs originated in situ by local differentiation only, there should be no significant partial correlation , since geography should fully explain the observed genetic and linguistic distances. This was not the case. If the genetics-language correlation were entirely due to the spread of populations accompanying the origin of
agriculture, then the origin-of-agriculture model should suffice, or at least there should be some effect due to origin of agriculture. But we saw that origin-of-agriculture distances (OOA) cannot reduce the partial correlations remaining after geography has been held constant."
The genetic evidence supporting the absence of an Indo-European origin in the Anatolian region is supported by the historical and archaeological evidence. The north and east of Anatolia was inhabited by non-Indo-European speakers. It appears that Indo-Europeans did not enter Anatolia until sometime between 2000 -1800 BC At this time we note the appearance of Indo-European (Hittite) names in the literary records of the Old Kingdom of Hatti. And at least as late as 1900 BC Anatolia was basically still Hattian.
The usual method of Indo-European and Chinese invasion was two-fold. First, they settles in a country in small groups and were partly assimilated. Over a period of time their numbers increased. Once they reach a numerical majority they joined forces with other Indo-European speaking groups to militarily overthrow the original inhabitants in a specific area and take political power. Since these communities occupied by the blacks often saw themselves as residents of a city-state, they would ignored the defeat of their neighbors. This typified their second form of invasion of the countries formerly ruled by the Proto-Saharans/Kushites/Blacks.
Blacks have failed even today to recognize that even though whites are highly nationalistic and engaged in numerous fratricidal wars, they will unify temporarily to defeat non-European people. As a result in case where the Blacks have been politically organized into states or Empires, rather than isolated city-states, the large political units have lasted for hundreds of years as typified by ancient Egypt, Axum, Mali and ancient Ghana.
D'iakonov on the other hand, believes that the Indo-Europeans (I-E) homeland was the Balkan-Carpathian region. He has shown that the culture terms of the I-E group indicate that they made their way across forest-steppe and deciduous forest zones to settle other parts of the world. This view is highly probable.
The view that these people were farmers seem unlikely, since the ideal farming areas in Europe were already settled by the Anu and people from the Fertile African Crescent as discussed in this unit. Instead of being farmers the I-E people were originally nomads.
The steppes could not have been the homeland of the Indo-Europeans because it was heavily occupied by the Proto-Saharan people until after 1300 B.C.In support of an early presence of Indo-European speakers on the steppes many scholars maintain that the Andronovo cultures and wheeled vehicles are markers of Indo-European "High" culture.
But this theory has been proven to be unsupportable by the archeological and linguistic data. The civilizations and economy that characterized "Old Europe" are foreign to the Indo-European culture portrayed in the Indo-Aryan literature.
Many scholars use the chariot and horsemanship as an ethnic marker for the Indo-Europeans. But it can not be proven that the horse drawn chariot was an exclusive Indo-European marker. The wheeled vehicles were used in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley before the 3rd millennium. The presence of pre-Dynasty and early Dynasty wheeled toy animals from Egypt and elsewhere support the view that the wheel was a well known technology to the Kushites before the expansion of the Indo Europeans.
This view is further supported by the fact that the IE roots for "wheel" number four. Use of a number to signify the "wheel" illustrates that this technological innovation must have come from elsewhere and was later adopted by the Proto-Indo-Europeans after there dispersal.
The horse can not be a marker for the Indo-European dispersal either. It would appear that in the steppes, the horse was not intensively used until the iron age. V.M. Masson believes that horse domestication and riding developed in the 1st millennium BC, on the steppes.
The early I-E were Kurgan nomadic warriors. Kurgan is a name used by archaeologist for the early Europeans.The term I-E does not refer to a racial type, because many of the ancient I-E speakers may have been black , given the fact that among the depictions of the People of the Sea on Egyptian monuments their are African people. But today the only I-E people we have are Caucasian.
Evolving in the Caucasus mountains, the Kurgan folk were pastoralist. They herded cattle, pigs and sheep.
The Kurgans were a very destructive people. They destroyed vast regions of forest across Europe. By the Fourth millennium BC, wide tracts of forests were gone in Europe. Upon their encounter with civilized Africoid communities, the latter were enslaved while the Kurgans adopted their culture. The Kurgan warriors used these slaves to grow grain.
The Indo-Europeans remained an insignificant group until they learned the art of metal working from the Hittites of Asia Minor. This along with natural disasters that took place around the world after 1600 BC, helped the Kurgans to infiltrate civilized areas in the Aegean and Indus Valley.
The Kurgan people are also known as the Battle Axe/ Corded Ware Folk. By the Third millennium BC, the Kurgan were breeding horses and organized themselves into militarized chiefdoms. The symbol of the warrior class was the horned helmet common to the Sea Folk and later Vikings. Their common weapon was the double axe.
The Kurgan folk in small numbers slowly migrated into the centers of civilization, first in northern Mesopotamia, then India. By 3500 BC, the Kurgans were invading the Caucasus region. Beginning in 3700 B.C., Old European settlements had walls built around them to keep out the Kurgan warriors.
These early I-E people practiced human sacrifice. At the death of a man his wife was often killed and buried with him.
The Kurgan people mixed with the indigenous Africoid people. Some of them were made slaves by the warrior elites. If black communities were more powerful than the Kurgans, they formed an alliance between themselves and conquered weaker groups. Once the Kurgan tribe became stronger it would knock off its former ally.
The People of the Sea began to infiltrate the Aegean area after 1200 BC. These people usually wore horn helmets and used round shields
Pictures of these nomadic warriors are depicted in courtyard of Medinet Habu, in Egypt. These white Japhetic Philistine folk were relocated in Palestine, where two hundred years later they destroyed Sidon and Troy. This Philistine Kurgan ethnic group is called Phrs in Egyptian documents.
Another group of Kurgan tribes took Crete. From bases in Crete, they invaded North Africa west of Egypt. These Kurgan tribesmen were called Rebou, by the Egyptians. This group formed the white Libyan population which occupied much of the Delta region of Egypt, before the founding of Carthage by the Phoenicians.
By 1300 BC, the Dorian tribes invaded Greece and defeated the Achaeans. The Dorian conquest of Mycenae led to Crete becoming a major center of Achaean civilization. The Dorians learned the art of writing from the Phoenicians.
Among the early I-E social relations were patriarchal. The hereditary warrior class controlled the best lands and large slave populations made up mainly of the native Blacks and poor Indo-European population. The landless people served as serfs for the ruling class made up of warriors.
Each Indo-European ethnic group was led by a Basileus. He was military commander, judge and high priest.
In summary the myths , archaeological and historical evidence all indicate that Europe was not the homeland of the White race. It would appear from the evidence that the ancient Greeks were Blacks. Moreover, it is clear that these blacks taught the Europeans civilization and government and that these symbols of government and civilization can not be claimed solely as the property of Europeans.
The historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence proves that contemporary ancient history text must be re-written to reflect that the blacks in Europe were not just slaves, but founders of Grecian civilization.. These new history text must, for the first time reflect of the African role in history so that black children and white children will know the truth about history, and not just false hoods that deny the existence of a native Grecian African role in the rise of ancient Greco-Roman civilization.
These blacks in Greece just like African-Americans today built the culture and civilization of ancient Greece. But their efforts, unfairly have been ignored and over looked by scholars who knew the truth, but hid this truth to validate White World Supremacy.
Kindly read interview with Martin Bernal (1993) on "Black Athena"