Saturday, August 30, 2014

EGBA PEOPLE: YORUBA SUB-TRIBE OF FREEDOM-FIGHTERS, INTELLECTUALS AND ARTISTIC PEOPLE

The Egba are ancient freedom-fighters, highly intellectual, artistic and agriculturalist Yoruboid-speaking people that forms the sub-set of the larger Yoruba ethnic group of West Africa, particularly in Nigeria and the Republic of Benin. Egba people who were also traders reside in Southwestern Nigeria in the city of Abeokuta, the Capital of Ogun State.

                          Egba people of Ogun State

Egba people who are the original founders of the city of Abeokuta which they share with Owu people (later arrivals), had an opportunity of their land also settled on by missionaries (in the 1840s) by Sierra Leone Creole (Saro, who were Nigerians and others Africans descendants repatriated from diaspora back to Sierra Leone) who later became prominent as missionaries and as businessmen. It must be emphasized that Abeokuta’s success as the capital of the Egbas and as a link in theLagos - Abeokuta oil-palm trade led to war with Dahomey (now Benin Republic). In the battle at Abeokuta in 1851,the Egbas were aided by the missionaries and also armed by the British. Thus, they were able to defeat King Gezo’sDahomey Army that was unique and famous in the history of West Africa for its common practice of using women warriors. Another Dahomey attack was repulsed in 1864. Troubles in the 1860s with the British in Lagos led the Egbas to close the trade routes to the coast and they expelled its missionaries and European traders at about 1867.
Egba people are direct descendants of Orafiyan, son and successor of Oduduwa, the progenitor of Yoruba people. They were under a federation of three groups-Ake, Okeona and Gbagura scattered over 150 towns and including the modern city of Ibadan, Oyo and Ijaye. Egba people were parts of the famous pre-colonial African Oyo empire (Kingdom) in Nigeria.

Up until the 18th Century, the Egba people lived in a cluster of villages around a place known as Orile-Itoko, as a subject territory of the old Oyo Empire, which was one of the strongest empires that ever existed in West Africa. Just like the Roman Empire, the Oyo empire was so strong that it easily quelled any form of uprising or rebellion from any of its subject-states. It was however shocking when a little known, but brave warrior, Lisabi Agbongbo-Akala, arose from among the Egba people and led the nation in an uprising against the Oyo Army’s continuous occupation of their land, the first in the history of political and military confrontation with the Oyo kingdom. The defeated the Oyo army not only liberated the Egba people from the stronghold of the Oyo kingdom, it also signaled the disintegration of the all-mighty empire and the small nation of Egba ceased to be a colony of the Oyo empire and became a free state while Lisabi Agbongbo Akala, up to this day, is regarded as the father of the Egba people for his outstanding roles in the people’s liberation.
Fela Kuti (born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti;[1] 15 October 1938 – 2 August 1997), Egba-Yoruba man also known as Fela Anikulapo Kuti or simply Fela, was a Nigerian multi-instrumentalist, musician, composer, pioneer of the Afrobeat music genre, human rights activist, and political maverick

However, the weakening might of the Oyo Empire as a result of continuous disintegration of the kingdom and rise of former colonies like Ibadan, Ijebu and the likes coupled with the boom of the slave trade, exposed the nation to frequent attacks from Ibadan as well as Dahomey, another big empire with its headquarters in today’s Benin Republic.
Egba man, Chief Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan, lawyer, interim President of Nigeria in 1993

Thus, between 1825 and 1830 when it became expedient that the Nation of Egba can no longer withstand the frequent attacks of the slave hunters from Ibadan and Dahomey, the Egba people, on the directives of the Ifa Oracle, was led by chief Shodeke, on a long but tortuous journey that brought them to the western side of the massive outcrop of granite rocks called “OLUMO”, that is “Oluwa fimo” meaning God puts an end to our wandering. The very point the oracle asked them to relocate to.

HRH Alake of Egbaland, Olori Tokunbo Gbadebo & Helen Oketunji (Publisher, Vintage magazine, UK)

Historically Egba people used to people without kings, hence the common saying:"“Egba ko l’olu, gbogbo nwon ni nse bi Oba” (Egbas have no king, they are all of them like masters) “Olu wa’ l’Oyo” (The king of Oyo). That is to say, they have no king that rules. The king is acknowledged as the head of the government, but only as a figure head. More marked was this when they lived in separate townships before their concentration at Abeokuta. The Ogbonis constitute the town council, and they are also the executive, and even the " king" was subject to them. The same rule holds good even at Abeokuta for each township. Amongst the highest Ogboni titles are : —
The Aro, Oluwo, Apena, Ntowa, Bala, Basala Baki, Asipa, Asalu, Lajila, Apesi, Esinkin Ola, Bayimbo, Odgfin. The warriors rank next after the Ogbonis, the Balogun and the Seriki being the most important. The Egbas have been significant members of ruling political parties, music, art, feminism advocacy, freedom and democracy and at the forefront of Human Rights campaigns. In fact, they have contributed significantly to the political development of Nigeria and the world.

Professor Akinwande Oluwole "Wole" Soyinka, an Egba-Yoruba man and a Nigerian playwright and poet. He was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature, the first African to be so honored.

The likes of Adetokunbo Ademola, the Ransome Kuti family, Madam Tinubu, George Sodeinde Sowemimo, Wole Soyinka, Moshood Kashimawo Abiola, Olusegun Aremu Obasanjo, Olusegun
Osoba, Dimeji Bankole and others cannot be forgotten in the political history and political development of Nigerian.
Chief Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola (August 24, 1937 – July 7, 1998), Egba-Yoruba man often referred to as M. K. O. Abiola, was a popular Nigerian Yoruba businessman, publisher, politician and aristocrat of the Yoruba Egba clan. He ran for the presidency in 1993, and is widely regarded as the presumed winner of the inconclusive election since no official final results were announced. He died in 1998, after being denied victory when the entire election results were dubiously annulled by the preceding military president Ibrahim Babangida because of alleged evidence that they were corrupt and unfair.

The Egbas can be distinguished from other Yoruba group with how their facial tribal marks are cut. The  Egba facial mark is known as the Abaja Oro, i.e. the upright Abaja is distinctive of the Egbas. They consist of three perpendicular lines each about 3 inches long on each cheek. The younger generations, however, have their lines rather faint or of shorter lengths indistinguishable from the Pele.
Egba woman in traditional dress

On clothing, Egba men wear trousers, kembe/sokoto for down;  and the top is Buba and Agbada; cap, Fila (a beti aja). Their women wear: Down, Wrapper, Iro; Top, Buba; Headgear, Gele; Others – Ipele – Piece of cloth placed on the shoulder or wrapped around the waist.
Their staple food Food is Lafu (White Amala) and Ewedu soup; Wara, (Cottage Cheese Drink)
The Egba people have their own National Anthem as a group of people. Below is the anthem:
Egba Anthem
Lori oke o'un petele Ibe l'agbe bi mi si o Ibe l'agbe to mi d'agba oo Ile ominira
Chorus: Maa yo, maa yo, maa yo o; l'Ori Olumo; Maa yo, maa yo, maa yo o; l'Ori Olumo
Abeokuta ilu Egba Un ko nii gbagbe e re Un o gbe o l'eke okan mi Bii ilu odo oya Emi o f'Abeokuta sogo Un o duro l'ori Olumo Maayo l'oruko Egba ooo Emi omoo Lisabi E e
Chorus: Maa yo, maa yo, maa yo o; l'Ori Olumo; Maa yo, maa yo, maa yo o; l'Ori Olumo
Emi o maayo l'ori Olumo Emi o s'ogoo yi l'okan mi Wipe ilu olokiki o L'awa Egba n gbe E e
Chorus: Maa yo, maa yo, maa yo o; l'Ori Olumo; Maa yo, maa yo, maa yo o; l'Ori Olumo

There are some other songs that the egba people sing, here is one of them:
Egba ile ibe nigbagbo ti se wa, Egba ile ibe nigbagbo ti se wa
sa wa Egba lo ni jesu o

Here goes another short one
Awa lo mo abeokuta, ilu rere ilu olola
ilu to duro lase oluwa, Egba omo lisabi.

An “egungun'' festival in Ijaiye-Abeokuta, the Ogun State capital

Geography and Economy
Abeokuta lies in the fertile country of wooded savanna, the surface of which is broken by masses of grey granite. It is spread over an extensive area, being surrounded by mud walls 18 miles in extent.

Palm-oil, timber, rubber, yams, rice, cassava, maize, cotton, other fruits, and shea butter are the chief articles of trade. It is a key export location for cocoa, palm products, fruit, and kola nuts. Both rice and cotton were introduced by the missionaries in the 1850′s and have become integral parts of the economy, along with the dye indigo. It lies below the Olumo Rock, home to several caves and shrines. The town depends on the Oyan River Dam for its water supply.

Abeokuta is the headquarters of the Federal Ogun-Oshin River Basin Authority, which is responsible for development of land and water resources for Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo states. Included in this are irrigation, food-processing, and electrification.
Local industries include but are not limited to fruit canning plants, plastics, breweries, sawmills, and an aluminum products factory. South of town are the Aro Granite Quarries.

                                Abeokuta, Olumu Rock

Language
Egba people speaks  North-West Yoruba (NWY) dialect of the Yoruboid languages which belongs to the larger Niger-Congo language phylum. Apart from Egba people of Abeokuta, NYW dialect is also spoken in Ibadan, Ọyọ, Ogun and Lagos (Eko) areas.

                                        Ransome kuti family
North-West Yoruba is historically a part of the Ọyọ empire. In NWY dialects, Proto-Yoruba /gh/ (the velar fricative [ɣ]) and /gw/ have merged into /w/; the upper vowels /i ̣/ and /ụ/ were raised and merged with /i/ and /u/, just as their nasal counterparts, resulting in a vowel system with seven oral and three nasal vowels. Ethnographically, traditional government is based on a division of power between civil and war chiefs; lineage and descent are unilineal and agnatic.

History
The story of Abeokuta, the abode of the Egbas, started with their liberation from the sovereignty and over Lord-ship of the Alafin of Oyo Empire, to which the Egbas hitherto belonged.
The Liberation took place between 1775 and 1780, under the leadership of Lisabi, a resident of Igbehin, but who was born in Itoku. He organized a movement under the name of Egbe “Aaro” Tradition mutual Aid society.
Lisabi later used the mutual Aid assistance to free the Egba by organizing the simultaneous killing of the Ajales or the Ilaris in all Egba towns, in 1780, starting from Igbehin. In all more than 600 llaris or Ajeles were wiped out in one day. Ilaris the representative of the Alafin of Oyo and collectors of the tribute paid to the coffer of Alafin from all territories under the Oyo Empire.
The Ajales or Ilaris in general, behaved like an Army of Occupation in the places they administered. Their Tyrannical rules mark them out as instrument of oppression and suppression of the people. It was this Authoritarian rule of the Alafin and reckless life’s style of this Ilaris in Egbaland that threw up Lisabi and is Peers who were resolve to bring an end to the evil rule at all cost. The adoption of the universal popular Aaro system of cooperation by the “Egbe Ologun” (Arms Bearers Club) was the strategy Lisabi used to plot against the Ilaris in his Igbehin town. All the other Egba town rose and killed the Ilaris in their midst.
As soon as the news reaches metropolitan Oyo the Oloyo wasted no time in dispatching an Army to crush the Egbe Rebellion. But Lisabi divisional anticipated in the Reprisal an had factored it into his plan the Army of vengeance was routed and the freedom of the Egbas from the yoke of the Alafin was sealed. The time to which this Episode in Egba is to relate was between 1775 an 1780. The period between 1780 and 1828 in the history of Egba was post-Lisabi era in the Egba forest.
One would have thought that having been liberated from the vice like grip of imperialisms the Egba were not given to serve any monarch, even though they have an Oba, and their constitution was monarchy but would strive to sustain their new found freedom by forging stronger cooperative relation among them selves. That was not to be some factors which were inherent in their psychological make up soon re-surface once the focused of their un usual unity (somehow superimpose by Lisabi force of character) was missing the internal squabbles and disaffection among the people were often fertilized by the inter-personal dissention among the leaders who were mainly chiefs.
Around 1829, Lamodi of Igbehin and Balogun of the Egba, living in Maye’s camp in Ibadan, decided that the Egba should find a way of escape from Maye’s bondage. The Egbas had heard about Abeokuta earlier on in their quest for a place with good security to settle in. they sent chief Sobookun, the Baamokun of Ilugun, and others to bring a handful of earth and the result was propitious.
History revealed that the Egbas did not get to Abeokuta at the same time. The first batch to arrived Abeokuta consisted of Egba Alake, Oke Ona, and Gbagura, in that order. Later Olufakun led the Owu to Abeokuta, while others followed. Lamodi lost is wife in an epic battle while trying to prevent his first son, Osota, from being captured by Maye’s army, who were pursuing the Egba. But before he died, he handed over the mantle of leadership Sodoke. The seriki of the Egbas, Sodeke, in 1830 led the Egba Alake into Abeokuta. Balogun Olunloye, the Balogun Ilugun, led Ogba Oke-Ona whilst Oluwole Agbo, Balogun Ojo Gbagura, led the Gbagura to Abeokuta, likes Joshua in the bible. Sodeke of Iporo finally led the Egbas to Abeokuta in 1830.
It was revealed that an Iloko chief named Idowu Liperu had earlier been living at the settlement. He had cross the Ogun River and settles on a farmland, were three hunters, namely Jibulu, Ose and Olunle joined him. Unlike, Liperu, who erected a house with the assistance of the then Olubara Lafa the three hunters lodge in caves under the Olumo Rock. It was them who told the Egba delegate who came to take soil samples about the Olumo Rock.
Later, Adagba and other move to the rock to join Liperu and the three hunters, who had settle there. Adagba was a brave man, who had is farmland located very close to olumo rock. The settlement was called “Oko Adagba,” the other man for Abeokuta while Olumo Rock took his name from it being natural furnished with apartment. “Olumo “means built by the Lord.” Other historians maintained that the meaning of olumo is “Oluwa Fimo” meaning God put an end to our hostility against the Egbas and their suffering.” Abeokuta is also known as “Abe Olumo”.
After the demise of chief Sodeke, Abeokuta has no leaders for quite a number of years. The administration of the town was left in the hands of chiefs like Ogunbona, the Balogun of Ikija, Okukene the Sagbua of Ake; Someye, the seriki who later became Bashorun who succeeded Apati, Bada of Kemta and others.
The Egbas realized that they are not united as they had been when Sodeke brought them together. The thought of having an Oba came to them and the lot fell on Okukene, the Sabua of Ake and head of Egba Ogboni – an industrious woodcarver. He installed the Alake of Abeokuta on August 8, 1854. Oba Okukene’s reign witnessed the advancement of Christianity, commerce and the advent of European merchants in Abeokuta.
He died in 1862. An interregnum of about seven years elapsed between the death of Okukene and the installation of another Oba in the person of Ademola 1 – who reigned between 1869 and 1877. He was succeeded by Oyekan who reigned between 1879 to 1881. It was the turn of Luwaji to reign between 1885 to1889. Osokalu ruled between 1891 and 1898. Egba became a nation during Oba Osokalu. Gbadebo 1, ruled between 1889 to1920. Sir Ladapo Ademola II reigned from 1920-1962. Oba Adeshina Gbadebo II reigned from 1963 to 1971. Oba (Dr.) Oyebade Lidepe ruled between 1972 and the year 2005.
Oba Adedotun Aremu Gbadebo, Okukene IV, born 14 September 1943, was elected the Alake of Egbaland on 2 August 2005 and reigns till date. He is from Laarun Ruling House, a grandson of the sixth Alake of Egbaland, Oba Gbadebo, who ruled from 188 to 1920.

Economy
Abeokuta is an agro-based market with small and middle level agro industries. The people produce agricultural products such as Yams, Cassava, Rice, Corn, Palm oil, Poultry, Cottons and vegetables. It also serves as an exporting point for cocoa, palm produce and kolanuts.
Due to the rocky terrain of some parts of the city, it has for many years been home to a number of quarry industries.Although, cotton was introduced by the Missionaries in the 1850’s, Cotton weaving, pottery and tie and dye (Adire) are all traditional crafts of the Abeokuta people.
The city is reputed to be the capital of the tie and dye industry in Nigeria. The centre of Adire making and marketing in Abeokuta is at the popular Itoku market at Kenta.
“The dyes were initially extracted from grasses and leaves which were soaked for a number of days in order to extract the dye from it. However, when the Malian traders came to Nigeria in the early part of the 20th Century, they introduced chemical dyes which came in varying colours. This development gave a boast to the industry and made the process of adire making a lot faster in a bid to meet the growing demand for it, says Mrs Malaolu, an adire merchant.

Political structure
The convention which the Egba people operated since 1830 was never codified until 1897 when the EGBA UNITED GOVERNMENT became structured. Under the convention, the quarters were broadly grouped under four natural rulers namely:
The ALAKE of AKE, the OSILE of OKE-ONA, the AGURA of GBAGURA, and the OLOWU of OWU
His Royal Highness Oba Gbedegbo I,1898 - 1920

The ALAKE who was accepted as the paramount leader assumes the title: THE ALAKE OF EGBALAND, who being the chairman of the other Egba kings, represents the interest of all the Egbas in all aspects that concern the Kingdom.
The amalgamation of the Egba people in Abeokuta shared political powers in varying degrees under the following broad classifications:
The OGBONIs - the SENATE
The War Chiefs - the OLOGUNs who prosecuted wars
The PARAKOYIs - the Commercial Chiefs who dominated the Economic sector
The OLODEs - the Hunting Chiefs whose role was minor but nevertheless significant
Next to the natural rulers, the OGBONI chiefs constituted the Executive Council in the administration of the State. Their advice was highly valued by the natural rulers who invariably consulted them in confidence before taking any major decisions. The Ogbonis adjudicated over cases involving murder, adultery, divorce, recovery of debts, etc.
Alake of Abeokuta (Egbaland) from left:Oba Ladapo_Ademola II, his father HRH. Oba Gbadegbo II and right,secretary

The Court, their word was law right from the settlement of the Egba in Abeokuta, until much later after the Adubi War.
They meet regularly to deliberate over the affairs of their communities. For a citizen to discountenance a summons from Ogbonis was considered outright treason. They earned their income through fines and gifts or tributes in the form of food or produce.
The amalgamation of the Egba people in Abeokuta shared political powers in varying degrees under the following broad classifications:
The OGBONIs - the SENATE
The War Chiefs - the OLOGUNs who prosecuted wars
The PARAKOYIs - the Commercial Chiefs who dominated the Economic sector
The OLODEs - the Hunting Chiefs whose role was minor but nevertheless significant
The War Chiefs - the OLOGUNs -were responsible for executing wars declared by the natural ruler or considered necessary at their own discretions. They were expected to be militarily prepared all the time, either to wage the Obas war or to ward off attacks from invaders. Sometimes, the War Chiefs wielded much power which could constitute a threat to the security of tenure of Oba himself.

Chief Olusegun Osoba the Akinrogun of Egbaland,and Aremo Awujale of Ijebuland,  journalist, and former MD Daily Times of Nigeria, was (born July 15 1939) at an Egba settlement in Osogbo called Egbatedo to Pa and Madam Jonathan Babatunde Osoba of blessed Memory. He was elected on two different occasions as Governor of Ogun State first from January 1992 until November 1993 on the platform of Social Democratic Party (SDP).

The PARAKOYIs - the Commercial Chiefs superintended over matters of commerce and trade in general. They were responsible for the smooth running of the commercial life of the community and offered economic advice to the state.
The OLODEs - the Hunters’ Chiefs looked after the affairs of farming and hunting in peace time.
During wars, they performed Para-military duties.
Generally, the Egbas had great respect for their Chiefs and each of the four groupings commanded great respect from the entire citizenry. This was why any person with the right means and inclination aspired to obtain a chieftaincy title by any means possible. A woman was usually included as a Chief in each grouping to represent the interest of the womenfolk.
The 3 Egba ruling traditional Kings

Wars fought and won by the Egbas
Owiwi war- Between the Egbas and the Remos in 1832
Oluyole war- This war was between the Egbas and Oyo in 1834-1835
Iperu war- This was fought in 1836
1st Dahomey war- Between the Egbas and the Dahomey in 1844-1845
2nd Dahomey war- in 1851
3rd Dahomey war- in 1853
4th Dahomey war- in 1864
      Olu of Ilaro Yewa (Egbado) Ilaro town, western Ogun state, South Western Nigeria. Located on the former trade route from the towns of the empire of Oyo to the port of Porto-Novo (now the capital of Benin), 40 miles (64 km) southwest, it was established by the late 18th century as the capital and chief trade centre of the Egbado people (a subgroup of the Yoruba). With the decline of Oyo in the early 19th century, the Egbado kingdom was raided for slaves by the Dahomeyans until it was absorbed in the 1840s and '50s by the more powerful Egba kingdom at Abeokuta (29 miles [47 km] northeast). As a subject town, Ilaro served the Egba as a trading post on the western route from Lagos to Ibadan. In the 1860s European missionaries arrived and established the Yoruba Anglican Mission in Ilaro. Following the 1890 delineation of colonial boundaries by the French and the British, the Egbado, who felt oppressed by Egba rule, asked for British protection and control of their territory. A British military garrison was built in Ilaro in the same year. Modern Ilaro is a collecting point for cocoa, palm oil and kernels, kola nuts, vegetables (especially rice and okra), and fruits grown in the surrounding area. Yams, cassava, and corn (maize) are also cultivated by the town's farmers. Cotton weaving and dyeing (with locally grown indigo) are traditional industries. There are deposits of limestone (used by a cement plant at Ewekoro, 13 miles [21 km] east-northeast) and phosphate in the vicinity. Ilaro is the site of a federal polytechnic college. It is located at the end of a spur on the Lagos-Nguru railway and lies at a junction of local roads. Population 42,410 (1992 Estimate).  
     Egba- Abeokuta town,  capital of Ogun state, South Western Nigeria. It is situated on the east bank of the Ogun River, around a group of rocky outcroppings that rise above the surrounding wooded savanna. It lies on the main railway (1899) from Lagos, 48 miles (78 km) south, and on the older trunk road from Lagos to Ibadan; it also has road connections to Ilaro, Shagamu, Iseyin, and Kétou (Benin).   Abeokuta ("refuge among rocks") was founded in about 1830 by Sodeke (Shodeke), a hunter and leader of the Egba refugees who fled from the disintegrating Oyo Empire. The town was also settled by missionaries (in the 1840s) and by Sierra Leone Creoles, who later became prominent as missionaries and as businessmen. Abeokuta's success as the capital of the Egbas,  and as a link in the Lagos-Ibadan oil-palm trade led to wars with Dahomey, (now Benin). In the battle at Abeokuta in 1851, the Egba, aided by the missionaries and armed by the British, defeated King Gezo's Dahomeyan army (unique in the history of western Africa for its common practice of using women warriors). Another Dahomeyan attack was repulsed in 1864. Troubles in the 1860s with the British in Lagos led the Egba to close the trade routes to the coast and to expel (1867) its missionaries and European traders.                 more | enlarge Osile of Oke-Ona      After the Yoruba civil wars (1877-93), in which Abeokuta opposed Ibadan, the Egba Alake ("king") signed an alliance with the British governor, Sir Gilbert Carter, that recognized the independence of the Egba United Government (1893-1914). In 1914 the kingdom was incorporated into the newly amalgamated British Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. The Abeokuta riots of 1918 protested both the levying of taxes and the "indirect rule" policy of Lord Frederick Lugard, the British governor-general, which made the Alake, formerly primus inter pares ("first among equals"), the supreme traditional leader to the detriment of the other quarter chiefs.   Modern Abeokuta is an agricultural trade centre (rice, yams, cassava, corn [maize], palm oil and kernels, cotton, fruits, vegetables) and an exporting point for cocoa, palm produce, fruits, and kola nuts. more | enlarge Agura of Gbagura .
Alake of Abeokuta (Egbaland) Oba Ladapo Ademola II in London, June 1937.
Creator: Hay Wrightson(1874 - 1949), Photographer.
Thanks to:National Portrait Gallery
Source:National Portrait Gallery.
Location:London,11 June 1937

    Abeokuta was a walled town, and relics of the old wall still exist. Notable buildings include the Ake (the residence of the Alake), Centenary Hall (1930), and several churches and mosques. Secondary schools and primary teachers' colleges at Abeokuta are supplemented by the University of Agriculture (formerly the University of Lagos Abeokuta campus), which specializes in science, agriculture, and technology, and the Ogun State Polytechnic (1979; a college). Pop. (1996 est.) 427,400.. Rice and cotton were introduced by the missionaries in the 1850s, and cotton weaving and dyeing (with locally grown indigo) are now traditional crafts of the town.                 more | enlarge Olubara of Ibara      Abeokuta is the headquarters for the Federal Ogun-Oshin River Basin Authority with programs to harness land and water resources for Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo states for rural development. Irrigation, food-processing, and electrification projects are included. Local industry is limited but now includes fruit-canning plants, a plastics factory, a brewery, sawmills, and an aluminum-products factory. South of the town are the Aro granite quarries, which provide building materials for much of southern Nigeria, and a huge, modern cement plant at Ewekoro (18 miles [29 km] south).      
His Royal Highness Samuel Ademola II, 7th Alake of Abeokuta with his daughter at the Methodist Missionary Society

               Traditional Council Members
 1. His Royal Majesty    Oba Adedotun Aremu Gbadebo The Alalake of Egbaland President
 2. His Royal Majesty    (Dr) Adedapo Adewale Tejuoso The Oshile of Oke-Ona Egba
 3. His Royal Majesty    Oba Halidu Laloko Sobekun The Agura of Gbagura
 4. His Royal Majesty    Oba Olusanya Adegboyega Dosunmu The Olowu of Owu
 5. His Royal Majesty    Oba Moshood A. Oyede The Olota of Ota
 6. His Royal Majesty    Oba (Dr) J. O. Omolade Olubara of Ibara
 7. His Royal Majesty    Oba N. A. Adekanbi The Olofin of Isheri
 8. His Royal Majesty    Oba (Apostle) M. A. A. Olabode The Omola of Imala
 9. His Royal Majesty    Oba A. O. Oyero The Oniro of Iro
 10. His Royal Majesty Oba Michael A. Fatona The Elewo Ilewo
 11. His Royal majesty   Oba J. O. O. Tella The Onisaga of Isaga
 12. His Royal Majesty Oba S. A. Oloyede The Onijale of Ijale
 13. His Royal Majesty Oba S. O. Fasina Onikooko of Kooko
 14. His Royal Majesty Oba S. A. Ojugbele The Onilogbo of Ilogbo
 15. His Royal Majesty Oba S. A. Oladipupo The Olu of Ifo
 16. His Royal Majesty Oba A. K. Akamo The Olu of Itori
 17. His Royal Majesty Oba F. O. Makinde The Olu of Igbein
 18. His Royal Majesty Oba Onitele of Itele - (Vacant)        
HRM, OSILE OKE-ONA EGBA, OBA ADEDAPO ADEWALE TEJUOSHO

To be candid Abeokuta is the most influential amongst other Yoruba towns
Abeokuta was founded in 1830 by warriors like:
LAMODI-Who initiated the move to ABEOKUTA was then the BALOGUN of EGBA,he died on the way and never made it to the promised land ABEOKUTA.
SODEKE-Who was then the SERIKI of EGBA led the fleeing EGBAs to ABEOKUTA in 1830 after the death of LAMODI.
SODEKE’s father was from Iporo but his mother,EFUWON,was from Gbagura.

THE CROWNING of EGBA OBAs
8th August,1854 -OKUKENU who held the title of Sagbua,the post of headship of the Ogbonis,was crowned the ALAKE of AKE.Losii,an Ake man was the first choice but he died before he could be installed.
In 1855 - the Owu followed suit by crowning PAWU as OLOWU of OWU
1870 - The AGURA was crowned
1897 - OLOKO (now OSILE) was crowned
14th April,1952 – OLUBARA, Oba Samuel Adetola Adesina Lalubu the 2nd was the first to be crowned in Abeokuta Town.
      ( history revealed that there had been seven OLUBARAs who were crowned at Ibara Orile)
Egba United Government
HISTORY OF ABEOKUTA
Wars fought and won by the Egbas
Owiwi war- Between the Egbas and the Remos in 1832
Oluyole war- This war was between the Egbas and Oyo in 1834-1835
Iperu war- This was fought in 1836
1st Dahomey war- Between the Egbas and the Dahomey in 1844-1845
2nd Dahomey war- in 1851
3rd Dahomey war- in 1853
4th Dahomey war- in 1864
Alake of Abeokuta (Egbaland) Oba Ladapo Ademola II, 9th August, 1945

THE ALAKE of EGBALAND
The OLOWU of OWU
The AGURA of GBAGURA
The OSILE of OKE-ONA
The OLUBARA of IBARA
The Alake of Egbaland HRH Oba Michael Adedotun Aremu Gbadebo Okukenu IV
The Olowu of OWUAbeokuta HRH Oba Adegboyega Olusanya Dosumu The Amororo II
The Agura of Gbagura HRH Oba Halidu Laloko Sobekun II
The Osile of Oke-Ona HRH Oba Adedapo Tejuoso Karunwi III
The olubara of Ibara HRH Oba Jacob Omolade Lafa II


In depth History of Egba People
The Egbas are a small offshoot of the Yorubas Proper, who occupy the south-eastern districts of that province. They origin- ally occupied the area bounded by certain imaginary lines drawn, say, from Ijaye to meet the Ogun River at Olokemeji, and along it to its mouth, and another from the same point via Ibadan to the west of Jebu Remo down to the coast. They lived in hamlets and villages for the most, part independently of one another, and never under one rule. All the principal families of the Egbas trace their origin from Oyo, hence the common saying " Egbas who have not their root in Oyo are slaves," i.e., belong to the conquered aboriginal population. Most of the chiefs sprang from the Esos of Oyo. It would seem then that during the wars of conquest, a number of these war-like Esos, under the leadership of the King's half-brother, was detached from the main army, carrying their arms to those regions where they subsequently settled, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Owns. Abeokuta, as we now know it, of course had no existence then. Each of what is now called the " townships " was a separate village or hamlet with its own chief ; they were loosely grouped into three divisions, but rather independent of one another, but all acknowledging the King's brother (the Alake) as their Primus. They were :
1. Egba Agbeyin. These were the Egbas proper, and nearest the I jebu Remos. The principal towns were : Ake, the chief town, Ijeun, Kemta, Iporo, Igbore, etc.
Egba woman Chief Mrs. Bola Kuforiji-Olubi, former Chairman, UBA

2. Egba Oke Ona, i.e., those situated near the banks of the River Odo Ona. Oko the chief town, Ikereku, Ikija, Idomapa, Odo, Podo, etc. Their chief is called the Osile.
3. Egba Agura or Gbagura : these were situated near the Oyo districts, and indeed they contain genuine Oyos in large numbers, and generally they partake of their characteristics largely, hence
they are nick-named " Oyos among Egbas." The principal towns were : Agura the chief, Ilugun, Ibadan, Ifaye, Ika, Ojo, Ilawo, etc.
Egba wedding

The Egbas were on the whole few in number, and occupied a limited territory ; this can very well be proved by the fact, that after a period of more than half a century, they have been compelled by stress of circumstances to live together within one wall, and in spite of large accessions from other tribes, they still form but a single large town. Situated, as they were then, far from the centre of life and activity, they were little thought of. They had no separate king because all the principal chiefs and distinguished personages were office bearers of the Alafin, hence the common saying, " Egba ko I'olu, gbogbo nwon ni nse hi Oba " (Egbas have no King, they are all of them like masters) " Olu wa' royo " (The King is at Oyo). It may be noted, that every child born to a reigning Alake must have an Oyo facial mark ; and that is so to this day. In early times the Alake ranks among the junior members of the Royal Family ; for that reason there has never been a distinct royal family arnong the Egbas. The chief rulers in each division were usually elected (by divination) from any one of the 153 townships ; an Ikija man for instance has been " king " of Itesi, an Ijeun man an Alake. In this respect also the Gbaguras differ from the others.

In later times, at Abeokuta, one Jibode, a wealthy trader and traveller, who vainly endeavoured to obtain the Primacy of Ake, left children and grandchildren who eventually attained the coveted position, which was a singular instance of more than one member of a family becoming an Alake, but then they were all born in different townships.
The Osile is said to be an unfortunate title because, more than any of the other divisions, the Oke Ona people were more ptone to slaughter human victims; everytime the Osile entered the Ogboni
house, he must walk on the blood of a male victim, and when he comes out on that of a female ! Also that Osiles never die a natural death ; when their excesses became unbearable they were usually stoned to death ; hence the appellation of their chief town, " Oko " — i.e., a pelting stone. For that reason the Egbas were reluctant to resuscitate the title at Abeokuta until Governor McCallum of Lagos in 1897 on the occasion of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee ordered the Egbas and others to reorganise their government, and fill up vacant titles.
Since the destruction of the City of Owu (as we shall see below) and the unification of the Egba villages, the Owus have domiciled amongst them. Hence the so-called Four United Kings of the
Egbas : although Owu is not Egba.
Justice Adetokunboh Ademola (Chief Justice of Nigeria), with his father, Oba Ladapo Samuel Ademola (Alake of Egba Land)

Other version
After the fall of Owu, and the punishment inflicted upon some Egba towns for secretly befriending
the beleaguered city, the camp at Idi Ogugun broke up, and the leading Ife and Ijebu generals returned home to their respective masters, but the rest of the allied armies with the Oyo refugees
were invited by the Ijebus to Ipara, a town of Ijebu Remo. Making this place their headquarters, these restless bands of marauders found occupation for their arms in conquering and subjugating several towns in Ijebu Remo under the Awujale of Ijebu Ode, viz Ode, Iperu, Ogere and Makun.
As stated in the preceding section there were some friendly Egba chiefs who joined the marauders at Idi Ogugun and at Ipara, and now they were all living together at Ibadan. The most influential among them were : — Lamgdi, Apati, Ogunbona, Oso, Gbewiri, and Inakoju. Ogundipe, who afterwards became a notable chief at Abeokuta was then but a blacksmith and a private soldier.
FRA Williams
Egba man Chief Frederick Rotimi Alade Williams, QC, SAN (December 16, 1920 – March 26, 2005) was a prominent Nigerian lawyer who was the first Nigerian to become a Senior Advocate of Nigeria. In the 1950s, he was a member of the Action Group and subsequently became the minister for local government and Justice. He was the president of the Nigerian Bar Association in 1959, the association is the leading body for lawyers in the country. He left politics in the 1960s, as a result of the political crisis in the Western Region of Nigeria.

Pretext was soon found for waging war with the Egbas who were then living in small villages scattered all over the area between Ipara and Ibadan. Several expeditions were made from their
base at Ipara, and Iporo, Eruwon, Oba, Itoko, Itesi, Imo, Ikereku, Itoku, etc., were taken.
The following are the names of the distinguished war-chiefs in this campaign : — Oyo chiefs — Oluyedun, Lakanle, Oluyole, Adelakun, Opeagbe, Abitiko, Yismati, Oluoye, Koseiko, Abidogun, Osun, Laleitan, Bankole, Fadeyi Ogani-ija, Agbeni, etc. All these chiefs joined the allied army as private soldiers, but the fortunes of war raised them to positions of great distinction.
Notwithstanding this, they were looked down upon by the Ife and Ijebu leaders under whose auspices they joined the war against Owu, and had no voice in their councils. But they were soon to show their superiority.

His Royal Highness Oba Gbedegbo I, 1898 - 1920.
Creator: Johnston, Harry Hamilton, Sir, 1858-1927 -- Photographer
Source:Britain across the seas: Africa; a history and description of the British Empire in Africa.

Ife chiefs — Maye (the generalissimo in the absence of Singusin) Ogugu, Derin-Okiin, Labgsinde, Ogini, Aregbe, Olufadi, Degoke, Kugbayigbe, Oluygde, Epo, Kudayisi.
Ijebu chiefs — Kalejaiye, Amoibo, Osunlalu, Oguade, Argwgsanle, etc.
Rich with the booty of these expeditions, and finding no fresh fields of operation for their arms they decided to disband the army. The Ijebu war chiefs returned home and the Ifes set out to return by way of Oorun ; the Oyos who had nowhere to go to  accompanied them. There were thousands of Oyos already in Ife districts.

At Oorun (a Gbagura town) they found fresh employment for their arms when the men of that place refused them a passage. Another circumstance also occurred which hastened the siege of
Oorun and the fall of the remaining Egba townships.
A dispute arose between the people of Idomapa a neighbouring town and the Gbaguras about territorial limits which at length broke out into war and Oluwole the king of Idomapa who was the
weaker of the two combatants asked the aid of Labgsinde one of the leading Ife war-chiefs, and through him the rest of the Ife and Oyo war-chiefs against Ajiboso the king of the Gbaguras. The
allies encamped at Idomapa and Oorun was the scene of conflict, where the Gbaguras concentrated all their forces to oppose the Idomapas and their allies.
The Gbagura army was swelled by reinforcement from Ika, Owe Ikija, Iwokoto. The contest was furious and one Ogaro a gallant war-chief greatly distinguished himself in the defence of Oorun. As long as he could handle his bow and arrows, the enemy was kept at bay; but he fell in an engagement, and at the same time famine had commenced its direful work, and so the assailants successfully reduced the town.
As their fighting men had all fallen at Oorun the conquest of all the rest of the Gbagura towns was complete. Oorun when captured was fired ; being a town situated on a high hill, the conquerors were able by the aid of the light to pursue their victory to the next town which they found deserted, and so on to the next and the next until they reached Ojoho. The towns deserted and overrun that night were Oorun, Ijaiye- maja, Kosi-kosi, Ikerekuiwere, Ora, Ibadan. Ofa and Oje were also deserted, but the conquerors did not know of this till three days after as they lay outside their line of march.

Oba Gbadebo I, Alake of Abeokuta (1892-1920 fifth from left) with his Chiefs and British colonial administrator. Picture taken in 1905

From Ibadan they followed up the conquest to Ojokodo Iwohaha, and Eguoto; all these places were deserted and plundered in one night and by the dawn of day they were before Ojoho. Ojoho offered a stout resistance and being weary from long marches the conquerors retired to find a resting place. Of all the towns overrun the previous night, Ibadan alone they found not destroyed by fire, and so this marauding band hastily occupied it, the war-chiefs taking possession of any compound they chose, and their men with them and thus Ibadan was again re-peopled but not by
the owners of the town, but by a composite band of marauders, consisting of Oyos, Ifes, Ijebus, and some friendly Egbas, Maye a bold and brave Ife chieftain being their leader. Next to him was Labgsinde also an Ife, but, through his mother, of Oyo descent.
These two leaders were men of different character and opposite temperament. Maye was of an irritable temper, in manners rough and domineering, and never failed at all times to show his
contempt for the Oyos, chiefly because they were homeless refugees. At the head of the Oyos was Lakanla a bold and brave leader who alone of all the Oyo war-chiefs could venture to open his mouth when Maye spoke. Labosinde on the contrary was most agreeable and very fatherly in his manners and therefore much respected by all.

First role, 3rd from left; Oba Adeniji Adele (1949–1964) of Lagos with (First role, 4th from left) Alake of Abeokuta, Oba Ladapo Samuel Ademola II (27 Sep 1920 - 27 Dec.1962). Picture taken circa 1950.
Our source: Nigerianostalgia

Ibadan now became the headquarters of these marauders from which place Ojoho was besieged and at length taken. At this time also Ikeiye Owe and a part of Ika were deserted ; the Ika people escaping to Iwokoto. All these were Egba villages of the Gbagura section.
As stated in the preceding section there were some friendly Egba chiefs who joined the marauders at Idi Ogugun and at Ipara, and now they were all living together at Ibadan. The most influential among them were : — Lamodi, Apati, Ogunbona, Oso, Gbewiri, and Inakoju. Ogundipe, who afterwards became a notable chief at Abeokuta was then but a blacksmith and a private soldier.
Rivalry was so rife among these various tribes that altercations were frequent, and one led to a civil war. In a public meeting held at the Isale Ijebu quarter of the town, Lamodi an Egba chief shot Ege an influential Ife chief down dead with a pistol, and in the commotion which ensued Lamodi himself was slain. For fear of the Ifes avenging the death of Ege the Egbas withdrew in a body from Ibadan and encamped on the other side of the Ona river, about 3 or 4 miles distant. Here also they were ill at ease and after divination they sent for one Sodeke to be their leader, and they escaped to Abeokuta then a farm village of an Itoko man, and a resting place for traders to and from the Oke Ogun districts. Sodeke was at the head of this new colony until his death. This was about the year 1830 They were continually swelled by Egba refugees from all parts of the country and also by Egba slaves who had deserted their masters. At Abeokuta the refugees kept together according to their family distinctions, viz. : —
1. The Egba Agbeyin comprising Ake the chief town, Ijeun, Kemta, Imo, Igbore, etc. These were under the Alake as chief.
2. Egba Agura (or Gbagura) comprising Agura the chief town Ilugun, Ibadan, Ojohg, Ika, etc., under the Agura as chief.
3. Egba Oke Ona with Oko the chief town. Ikija, Ikereku, Idomapa, Odo, Podo, etc., under the Osile as chief.
Here also the Owus joined them, one common calamity throwing them together. It was some considerable time after that Ijaiye joined them, and so by degrees all the Egba townships about 153 
became concentrated at Abeokuta, the new town comprising Ijemo Itoko and a few others who were already on the spot. 
Until the death of Sodeke in A.D. 1844 the Egbas never spoke of having a king over them, Sodeke wielding supreme power in a very paternal way. Of external relations, very little (if any) existed, each of these families managed its own affairs, and there was no properly organized central government. 
Even after the foundation ot Abeokuta there were still some Egbas residing at Ibadan. Egba women also who were unable or unwilling to go with their husbands to the new settlement were taken as wives by the new colonists at Ibadan and they became the mothers of most of the children of the first generation of the new Ibadan. From this it will be seen that the current tale of the Egbas 
being driven from Ibadan by the Oyos is lacking in accuracy. Such then is the foundation of the present Abeokuta. 

ABEOKUTA: A CITY FOUNDED UNDER THE ROCK
Contrary to the widespread sentiments in the Western world about Africa being a continent that was inhabited by scattered groups of un-organized and uncultured animal-like humans prior to the occupation of the lands by Europeans, Africa was indeed inhabited by well cultured and organized group of peoples that have formidably built empires as well as smaller territories before the Europeans and Arabs found their ways here.
The Egba nation is one of such numerous nations that had existed before the European incursion which interfered in the gradual evolution of Africa’s development. It is also one of the more than 250 nations that were lumped together to form the territory that is known today as the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Up until the 18th Century, the Egba people lived in a cluster of villages around a place known as Orile-Itoko, as a subject territory of the old Oyo Empire, which was one of the strongest empires that ever existed in West Africa. Just like the Roman Empire, the Oyo empire was so strong that it easily quelled any form of uprising or rebellion from any of its subject-states. It was however shocking when a little known, but brave warrior, Lisabi Agbongbo-Akala, arose from among the Egba people and led the nation in an uprising against the Oyo Army’s continuous occupation of their land, the first in the history of political and military confrontation with the Oyo kingdom. The defeated the Oyo army not only liberated the Egba people from the stronghold of the Oyo kingdom, it also signaled the disintegration of the all-mighty empire and the small nation of Egba ceased to be a colony of the Oyo empire and became a free state while Lisabi Agbongbo Akala, up to this day, is regarded as the father of the Egba people for his outstanding roles in the people’s liberation.
However, the weakening might of the Oyo Empire as a result of continuous disintegration of the kingdom and rise of former colonies like Ibadan, Ijebu and the likes coupled with the boom of the slave trade, exposed the nation to frequent attacks from Ibadan as well as Dahomey, another big empire with its headquarters in today’s Benin Republic.
Thus, between 1825 and 1830 when it became expedient that the Nation of Egba can no longer withstand the frequent attacks of the slave hunters from Ibadan and Dahomey, the Egba people, on the directives of the Ifa Oracle, was led by chief Shodeke, on a long but tortuous journey that brought them to the western side of the massive outcrop of granite rocks called “OLUMO”, that is “Oluwa fimo” meaning God puts an end to our wandering. The very point the oracle asked them to relocate to.
Olumo rock became the greatest strength and pillar of the Egba people, as it puts them at a vantage position to sight their enemies from several kilometers away and allow them to properly strategise and make use of the rock and the caves as protective shields against their enemies. The people then constituted themselves into a confederacy of distinct groups and settled in the areas surrounding Olumo Rock. And as peace gradually returned, they told themselves and whosoever cared to listen that they are the “people from under the rock” , that is, Abeokuta.
Thus, the city of Abeokuta, the largest city in today’s Ogun State and the capital, South-West Nigeria, is born. Located on the Ogun river, 78km north of Lagos and 70km from the ancient city of Ibadan , Abeokuta is a strategically located city with a rich historical significance to Nigeria and Black Africa.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Due to its strategic position and historical cum cultural significance as well as proximity to Lagos, a coastal city, Abeokuta became a sort of attraction to the missionaries as well as Sierra Leonean creoles as early as the 1840s.

This led to the visit of foremost missionary, Henry Townsend, whose visit had been foretold by the Ifa Oracle in 1843. Henry Townsend conducted the first church service in the new city on January 5, 1843. Similar efforts eventually led to the building of the first church in the whole of territories now known as Nigeria in the city of Abeokuta — St Peters Anglican Cathedral, Ake Abeokuta. It also boasts of being the city where the Yoruba Language (one of the three major languages spoken in Nigeria was first documented in print and was also home to the first Newspaper in Nigeria — Iwe Irohin – which was in circulation in the 1860s and remained so till 1867 when trouble with the British in Lagos led the city authorities to close the trade routes to the coast and expel its European traders and missionaries. Abeokuta, survived many challenges to become a powerful force as the capital of the Egba people and seat of the Egba United government, especially during and after the Yoruba civil wars which pitched Abeokuta against Ibadan. After the wars, the Alake (King) of Egba, who was the head of Egba United government, signed an alliance with the British governor, Sir Gilbert Cartar, which made the British Government to grant independence to the Egba United Government in 1893. The city of Abeokuta enjoyed this privilege as a capital city of an independent nation, once again, until 1914 when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated to form the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

                                      Fela Kuti, Egba man

Its people and culture
Abeokuta is an agro-based market with small and middle level agro industries. The people produce agricultural products such as Yams, Cassava, Rice, Corn, Palm oil, Poultry, Cottons and vegetables. It also serves as an exporting point for cocoa, palm produce and kolanuts.
Due to the rocky terrain of some parts of the city, it has for many years been home to a number of quarry industries.Although, cotton was introduced by the Missionaries in the 1850’s, Cotton weaving, pottery and tie and dye (Adire) are all traditional crafts of the Abeokuta people.
The city is reputed to be the capital of the tie and dye industry in Nigeria. The centre of Adire making and marketing in Abeokuta is at the popular Itoku market at Kenta.
“The dyes were initially extracted from grasses and leaves which were soaked for a number of days in order to extract the dye from it. However, when the Malian traders came to Nigeria in the early part of the 20th Century, they introduced chemical dyes which came in varying colours. This development gave a boast to the industry and made the process of adire making a lot faster in a bid to meet the growing demand for it, says Mrs Malaolu, an adire merchant.
Olumo Rock: The monument that made the city.
Paradise Nature Park, Abeokuta

At about two kilometers from Itoku market is Olumo rock, a massive outcrop of granite rocks, which peaks at about 137 meters above the sea level. Located in the part of Abeokuta called Ikija, Olumo rock prides itself as the symbol of Egba unity and the foundation of the city. History has it that a famous hunter and farmer named Adagba discovered the rock some 200 years ago.
Under the rock was a cave which was partitioned into a number of rooms using clay slabs. The cave with the rooms were used as hide-outs by the people during wars.
Overtime, most of the rooms have caved in due to the over 200 years of wear and tear with only one room standing till today. Olumo is a magnificent site to behold as it serves as tourist destination in Nigeria today. Right on top of the rock, a tourist can view the entire landscape of the city of Abeokuta and beyond. The centre was in 2006 upgraded to meet the current wave of technological advancement with the introduction of elevators.
It is worshipped annually, the latest being March3, 2012 to mark the Lisabi Day. Abeokuta city has produced illustrious sons and daughters, who had carved a niche for themselves in Nigeria and the world in general. They include Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, a one-time military Head of State and two- term civilian president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the Late Chief M.K.O Abiola, business mogul, politician and philantropist, the late Chief Simeon Adebo, Nigeria’s Permanent Representative at the United Nations, former Head of the interim Federal Government, Chief Ernest Shonekan, Amos Tutuola, author of palm wine drinkard, Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, Prof. Olikoye Ransome-Kuti and Prof. Wole Soyinka.
Beyond the imposing profile of the rock city and Olumo are a warm and accommodating set of people, who cherish peace above any other considerations.
source:http://insidewatchafrica.com/abeokuta-a-city-founded-under-the-rock/


Ademola II - The Alake of Egbaland at Trowbridge 1937






ASIWAJU BOLA AHMED TINUBU & OTUNBA BOLA KUFORIJI OLUBI


Yoruba woman on the right with an Edo on the left

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